Adizes Methodology (PAEI) + BrainStyles

The Adizes Methodology, my reference model for all of the concern structure models gathered for this study, can be difficult to describe. It has called a management intervention technique, a business revitalization program and an organizational therapy. It is an eleven-phase methodology developed by Ichak Adizes, formerly a professor from the John E. Anderson Graduate School of Management at UCLA. The Adizes Methodology is a set of practices and procedures for optimizing organizational function on an ongoing basis. These practices are carried out by the management team of Adizes client organizations, facilitated by Adizes or one of his licensed associates. One stated goal of the Methodology is to help organizations reach and remain in a dynamic state that optimally balances flexibility and control as conditions change. This state is called Prime.

The Methodology itself – the explicit 11-phase process used to diagnose and solve problems within the organization – is a proprietary resource available only to Adizes clients. However, the conceptual
framework supporting that Methodology is in the public domain, having been published in many forms. The Adizes Methodology is typically understood to include this conceptual framework, such that the term ‘Methodology’ is flexibly used to apply both to the publicly available conceptual material and the 11-phase proprietary intervention plan. My use of the terms ‘Adizes’ and ‘Adizes Methodology’ refers only to the conceptual framework, not the intervention program.

Books on the Adizes conceptual framework include Mastering Change, Managing Corporate Lifecycles,

Management/Mismanagement Styles, Leading the Leaders and The Ideal Executive, among others, described in more detail at www.adizes.com.

Situating the Adizes Methodology

Conceptually, the Adizes Methodology is a contingency theory of human organizations, which makes use of a competing values framework to describe management dynamics and organizational lifecycle dynamics. Contingency or congruency theories in organizational studies emphasize that there is no single best type of organization. Instead, these theories emphasize the importance of fit (Aldrich, 1979[7]). Fitness can be described as the ‘aligning’ or ‘matching’ of organizational resources to environmental opportunities and threats (Andrews, 1971[8]; Chandler, 1962[9]).

'Organizational resources' must be taken to include both collective and individual management styles, abilities, behaviors, values and aspirations (Szilagyi & Schweiger, 1984[11]; Tichy, 1982[12]). Peters and Waterman (1982[10]) summarize these resources as seven “S’s”: strategy, structure, systems, style, staff, skills and shared values. Organizations that fit their circumstances well align all of these elements with each other and with external opportunities and threats. Achieving this fit is the essence of good management, on the contingency theory view.

The concept of a competing values theory, which I use here as a general term, was initially developed by Quinn et al. to describe their own theoretical approach to management intervention and pedagogy. The Adizes Methodology can be described as a contingency theoretical approach to organizational management that analyses all the components of fitness using a competing values (or concern structure) framework.

PAEI: The Adizes Concern Structure Model

There are several ways to introduce the Adizes model of the structure of concern. Most of them involve introducing some key distinctions between the competing values in question. For example, two competing values underlying the Adizes model (among others) are the values of effectiveness and efficiency. These two values are different, and not entirely compatible, in that both cannot be maximized simultaneously.

In the Adizes Methodology, effectiveness is defined as “obtaining results which somebody needs”, and efficiency is defined as “conducting activities with minimal waste”. We can obtain needed results very quickly and reliably if we spare no cost in obtaining them, but then our resources will be depleted and unavailable for more work. We must also conserve our resources and work efficiently. However, over-concern with efficiency can lead to activities being under-resourced, which can compromise the attainment of results.

Determining a suitable trade-off between the mobilization and conservation of energy is thus necessary for every decision, and this judgment must be made under conditions of some risk or uncertainty. However, taking both concerns explicitly into account when deciding makes it much easier to adapt and adjust the trade-off quickly in the early stages of implementation. Striking a workable balance between effectiveness and efficiency in the attainment of our goals is important for reaching a quality decision.

Adizes also introduces a temporal dimension that cuts across the effectiveness/efficiency dimension. Decisions can be effective and efficient in the short run, but over longer periods of time those decisions can be shown to be ineffective and inefficient. One effective way to end a conflict between two employees is to fire both of them. No more conflict! As a general strategy, however, this approach to conflict will depopulate the organization. It is not effective in the long run.

Similarly, it can be more efficient in the short term to reduce job redundancy and minimize job overlap. But if no one knows much about their neighbors’ jobs, then when someone is ill or away, others cannot take up the slack. The whole overspecialized team might be immobilized if one of the specialists is unavailable. Allowing some overlap facilitates learning, so that team members can fill in for each other when needed. The imperatives of short-term efficiency and long-term efficiency are not identical to each other.

Short term effectiveness and efficiency alone are inadequate. Quality decisions must be both effective and efficient in the short and long run. These four functional horizons are illustrated below:

Layered over these four functional horizons, 

Adizes describes four corresponding activities: Producing, Administrating, Entrepreneuring and Integrating. These activities address short-term and long-term effectiveness and efficiency.


In the Adizes framework, Producing is the activity of attaining short term or immediate results, and Administrating is the activity of minimizing waste in ongoing activities. Entrepreneuring is the activity of seeking out and recognizing new opportunities or new orientations to the environment, and Integrating is the activity of coordinating shared attention and identification. Integration keeps organizations socially and functionally cohesive, preventing them from degenerating into mechanical, purely formally interrelated collections of functionally isolated individuals. When it operates properly, the organization becomes an organic unit that can survive even when key people leave the organization. Integration makes a whole that is more than the sum of its parts – one in which no single person on the team is indispensable. Any individual can step down from their position to be replaced by someone else, and the organization will still be what it is.

One advantage of the Adizes Methodology as a frame of reference for this study is that Adizes abbreviates his four categories of Producing, Administrating, Entrepreneuring and Integrating using just the four first letters of each word – PAEI. This makes it easier to disembed the concerns he lists for each value set, taking them out of their context in organizational studies to apply them more broadly as a possible features of some larger reality.

It might seem easy to make good quality decisions, since we only need to consider four simple concerns. However, people are very likely to disagree on the right balance of priorities for any given situation. Each concern requires decision-makers to adopt certain preoccupations, motivations, values, instincts and priorities. But due to personal preferences, some concerns appeal to us more than others. We each have biases towards or away from different styles of concern. Furthermore, we are very unlikely to be equally skilled at solving problems in all four styles of concern, because talent in one biases against talent in others (e.g. a talent for quick, snap decisions and a talent for long, careful meticulous decisions are hard to maximize within the same person).

An implication is that something in our biological organization makes it impossible to operate with equal brilliance in all four quadrants of concern. We are not wired up to be extremely talented in all four styles of concern at once. Most people will have a dominant style, a second strong style, a third competent style and a final weak style. We can attain ‘foursquare’ excellence only by teaming up with other people whose talents and preferences are different from ours. This creates synergy. It also necessarily entails conflict among collaborators.

If it is kept constructive, conflict is a positive development. Incompatibilities on teams can be leveraged to produce better group decisions by ensuring that all four functional horizons receive due consideration. Teams can thereby accomplish the well-rounded decisionmaking that individuals will always find more difficult to do, given the inevitability of personal biases and preferences. To understand conflict in decision-making, and to use it constructively rather than destructively, these

preferences and biases have to be generally understood.
Adizes illustrates these biases through the construction of four allegorical or prototypical personality profiles: the Producer, the Administrator, the Entrepreneur and the Integrator. These characters

exemplify the styles he describes. They are introduced below, and they illustrate the structure of concern in the field of personality, although the characters are clearly simplified. Each one represents a single, unadmixed dominant style, rather than the unique mixture of all four styles that
characterizes most adult human beings.

Adizes Prototypical Management Styles


Producers are high energy, active people. They like to be busy all the time, and their interests are overwhelmingly concrete. They love to attain tangible results, and to attain them often. They feel highly rewarded every time they can declare a task complete. Producers dislike fussy details, ambiguous situations or abstract considerations. They have little patience with future-oriented tasks and wild brainstorming. They are much more interested in getting a task done than they are in ensuring that their colleagues are happy with the way it got done. They will denigrate these kinds of interpersonal concerns, feeling that the rapid attainment of concrete results justifies the suspension of other concerns. This can make them unpleasant to be around at times, but they are responsible for driving many organizational achievements. Producers help us stop talking about solutions
and start implementing on them.


Administrators are quiet, cautious people who are less concerned with what we should do than how we should do it. They need to know what process or procedure we are planning to use before they can join in on the action. They are extremely uncomfortable with ambiguity or uncertainty, and they are made uneasy by unstructured environments and by group reliance on spontaneity and improvisation. Unplanned activities feel distressingly chaotic to them. Administrators prefer to construct a system of routines and conventions for ongoing activities, so they can be conducted in the smoothest and least disruptive manner possible. In organizational contexts, they bring stability and order to collective activities. They are slow and careful in decision-making because they track each detail to make certain it is handled properly. They also weigh the impact of any proposed changes on the entire stabilizing network of rules that they maintain. They may say “no” to new proposals as a reflex, in order to slow things down so they can think through the proposal and deliver a revised opinion once they have worked through their concerns. Administrators may see Producers as sloppy loose canons wreaking havoc upon organizational operations. Producers may see
Administrators as fussy obstructionists.


Entrepreneurs are easily typecast as dreamers. They are not interested in the results we are attaining today, and would rather focus on bigger potential achievements in the future. Entrepreneurs feel stifled by the demands of ongoing activities. The here-and-now is a trap. Entrepreneurs are energized by novel challenges, exciting opportunities, new possibilities and future achievements. They are talkative and charismatic. Their excitement is highly infectious, and they love being at the center of attention. They are flamboyant, expressive and very easily bored. They can come up with several very different grand future schemes every few minutes, when inspired.

Entrepreneurs scan the environment constantly for changes, in their drive for novelty. They love aligning themselves with new developments, and fomenting more change in those new directions. They track activities at a very high level of abstraction, looking for trends and anomalies. Producers are highly skeptical of this abstract exploration of mere possibilities, where there is a clear to-do list for the here and now. Administrators see Entrepreneurs as either irrelevant or dangerous. Entrepreneurs want to dramatically change the whole game an organization is playing, with no detailed sense of what the new rules will be. This cannot be squared easily with Administrator concerns about how to best do what we are currently doing.

Entrepreneurs are the only managers who seek out and stimulate major changes. They are easily dismissed, but it is fatal for organizations to shut them out. Change is inevitable, and the structure of Entrepreneurial agency allows them to help the whole team anticipate and adapt to change in
a timely, proactive manner.


Integrators are team-builders with the organization. They manage the interpersonal, interdepartmental, supplier and client relationships that allow the organization to function together as one organic whole. They attend to peoples’ needs, views, motivators, complaints and conflicts to foster a constructive working environment. Integrators help people focus on shared goals. They are less concerned about formal roles and titles, and more concerned that people pull together, each and all doing whatever it takes to achieve their collective mission. The measure of an Integrator’s success is his or her ability to take a vacation. He or she can step away from the organization for periods of time because it is well Integrated and functions as an organic whole.

In meetings where Producers are pushing for a quick decision about what to do, Administrators are slowing things down to make sure we carefully consider how best to proceed, and Entrepreneurs are questioning why we are even doing any of that now, when a new long-term plan is more attractive, Integrators are thinking about who we are, who is in the room and who our other stakeholders are. Integrators are trying to align concerns and interests, turning us into a combined and unified (organically integrated) force, in touch (integrated) with our social surroundings.
Producers do not have adequate patience for integration work. Their impatience is important for rapid task execution, but they typically tolerate damage to team integration in order to get things done. Administrators are more abstract in their focus than Integrators. In administrative mode, persons are defined according to roles specified in policies and procedures. No procedure defines the unique elements of interpersonal or group interaction that Integrators are so attentive to and aware of.

Entrepreneurs are also less concrete than Integrators. They can get lost in hypothetical futures. They prefer to be at the center of attention rather than sharing the spotlight, let alone stepping into the wings to observe and support others. None of these other three management styles focus on people in the way that Integrators do. They all focus in one way or another on tasks. Integration is the only function focused on the organization itself as a group of people pulling together to exert more power as a team than any of them could do individually.

Conflict of Styles

As mentioned earlier, the four characters mentioned above are allegorical. The Adizes Methodology holds that under normal circumstances, all people are able to operate in all four management modes. However, we are naturally strongest in only one of the four styles, almost from birth. A secondary style develops as we mature, and by adulthood we are usually very capable in our second mode. A third style can be learned with more effort, and in our weakest style we can function but will almost always benefit from some help. Our accomplishments in our weakest mode will never be as swift, easy and natural as achievement in our dominant modes. Teaming up with someone whose style profile complements ours is the only way to address all four horizons of concern with equal competence. In order for this teaming up to work, we have to respect the different values and priorities of our complementary partners. Conflict is guaranteed, but mutual respect keeps it

Our inability to be strongly talented in all four styles does not stem from any particular human frailty. The styles themselves are in conflict, such that strong performance on one of them requires characteristics that work against strong performance in others. The following table illustrates some of these conflicts.


Different styles use different tactics to realize different strategies. When people lack respect for other styles, this can lead them to devalue the imperatives and concerns proper to the other styles. If this devaluation is extreme, the person may cease to function in the devalued style. They may
even cease to recognize the existence of that class of concerns. They begin to manage all of their problems with the conspicuous disregard of a whole category of concerns, and their decisions begin to show predictable patterns of failure. The unbalanced kind of management that ensues is called

mismanagement in the Adizes Methodology.

The complete loss of even one style results in mismanagement and predictable patterns of failure, but the clearest and most visible forms of mismanagement arise when full reliance is placed on one and only one management style. All other styles and priorities are denigrated and disrespected.

These mismanagement styles help to highlight the competing values within the model. They are described below, one for each PAEI element.

Adizes Mismanagement Styles

The Lone Ranger

The Lone Ranger is a perpetually busy manager who only cares about results. Lone Rangers are perfectly willing to trample over peoples’ feelings, to violate proper procedure, and to cut short discussions about possibilities just so that known tasks can be executed quickly. Quality of

execution matters much less than task completion. Lone Rangers prefer to do all tasks themselves, because for any one task it is easier and quicker for them to do it themselves rather than training someone else to do it. This has the ironic outcome that Lone Rangers – who are interested in rapid execution to the exclusion of all else – end up becoming bottlenecks in the organization where work sometimes grinds to a near halt. Lone Rangers do not build effective work teams around them. Their employees tend to become simple errand-runners for the Lone Ranger as he or she manages tasks by crisis.

Lone Rangers leave work late and arrive early the next day in order to get things done. Their employees leave early and arrive late, because there is essentially nothing for them to do.

Lone Rangers make poor managers because they try to manage tasks directly, rather than managing the team that does the tasks. Their strong preference for concrete, tangible results and their inability to assess other kinds of outcomes leads to this untenable situation. Lone Rangers place a
severe limitation on the capacity of a team to grow. The team never gains the capacity to do more work than the Lone Ranger him or herself is capable of doing.

The Bureaucrat

Unlike Lone Rangers, Bureaucrats do not care about concrete or tangible results in the slightest. However, they are extremely concerned with how things are done, with procedures, rules and practices. They spend their time scrutinizing behavior on their teams to make sure that prescribed

methods are being followed. If an employee was to circumvent a rule or two to accomplish some important task, this would be a disaster. The Bureaucrat would devote all energies to punishing the wrongdoer for side-stepping a rule, completely ignoring the important results that this side-stepping made possible. No results in the world would justify “taking shortcuts”. Just because taking shortcuts worked this time does not mean it will work next time. Rather, total chaos and an unspeakable cascade of complications might occur, violating rule after rule after rule. Better to follow the rules – that’s the point. The rules say we should follow the rules, and so those are the rules we should follow. It’s the only way.

Bureaucrats hate improvisation and uncertainty in work behavior. They develop and release policies and procedures for everything, firmly believing that any policy is better than no policy around a task. Subordinates are expected to demonstrate that they followed proper procedure in everything they do, and innovation or improvisation is either discouraged or positively punished. The rules are seen as the guarantee that the team will not get into trouble. Bureaucrats end up managing the rules, with no attention paid to the experiences of stakeholders outside of the rules. The organization

may become insolvent and go under, but it will do so on time and according to regulations.

Everyone in bureaucratic organizations leaves work on time and arrives on time the next day. In the interim, they manage to look busy and keep things neat and well-organized, whether or not they are doing work that actually delivers any real value to internal or external stakeholders. The irony of bureaucracy is that the desire for order leads to such a massive proliferation of rules and policies that people become disoriented. The drive for order produces chaos, and the destruction that rules were put in place to prevent ends up sweeping away the whole work unit, which has stopped
delivering value to stakeholders.

The Arsonist

In their own minds, Arsonist are visionaries, about to revolutionize the world and garner the attention of all due to their genius and originality. Their favorite event is the announcement: the announcement of a new grand plan, great vision, new direction, innovative campaign, etc. They love these announcements and the commotion that they cause. They love to see their employees cheer and scramble to reorganize themselves in order to enact a new vision. The problem is, after a short period of time, once all the excitement dies down and the hard work of implementing the plans begins in earnest, Arsonists begin to get bored. In their boredom, they begin to dream up new grand schemes and new directions. This all builds up to a new announcement and a new great vision for employees to follow. The old projects they had been giving their attention to are now seen as irrelevant.

Since this happens with great regularity, employees are constantly forced to change directions. Their manager only appears among them to start new fires, watching everyone scramble to cope with them. Employees are eventually forced to ignore their manager – to applaud enthusiastically to

newly announced ideas, but to ignore the substance of those new announcements and to continue working on some project or another to the point of completion. The irony of the Arsonist is that someone who craves being at the center of everyone’s attention and esteem ends up being

irrelevant, marginalized and ignored by all around them.

The Super Follower

Super Followers are consummate political animals. They often have no sense of any of the issues that are at stake, but they have an extremely strong awareness of the conditions for political survival surrounding those issues. Super Followers thus do not stand for or represent anything in

particular. They simply echo or parrot back the mood and language of the powerful or the dominant clique. Super Followers are sometimes so good at following that they do so before anyone has a chance to lead. They will gauge the mood, tone and emerging consensus of a meeting, and then stand up and articulate that consensus as if it was their own contribution. They will only do this when they feel certain of the consensus, however. Super Followers are conflict averse, so if they are confronted with some residual conflict while they try to articulate the consensus, they may shift their articulated position on a dime, so as always to seem to be in agreement with whoever they are interacting with. This kind of face-to-face agreement characterizes all of their interactions with important or powerful people. The issues don’t matter. Being on the right side is the only thing they care about.

Super Followers like one particular type of subordinate; one who listens in on conversations, who has friends throughout the organization, and who feeds this information to the Super Follower to help him or her in political intrigue – a gossip. Super Followers do occasionally become leaders

of organizations, and when they do, they still seek out a powerful reference group to please. There will be a set of stakeholders, constituents or commentators that the Super Follower will try to impress and appease. They “govern by opinion poll”, taking no particular stand on any issues until it is clear what the reference group wants to hear.

It does not matter to the Super Follower if the organization drifts away from its actual mandate as a result of all of this impression management. It only matters if powerful onlookers criticize the Super Follower for allowing this drift to happen. They way things are is of no concern to the Super Follower. All that matters is the way things look. The irony of course is that a sole focus on form over function leads to scandalous failures of function that can expose a Super Follower for what he or she is, a confused mismanager with narrow priorities interested primarily in their own position, rather than the good of the whole organization. By worrying exclusively about looking good, they end up looking pathetically bad.

Finding Balance

The truth is that in any adaptive situation, all four concerns are going to be relevant, though not to the same degree. In the organization of first response emergency services, for example, rational order and organization (A) are very important, to enable quick responses (P). However, complex and

cumbersome regulations can actually impede first responders, so finding the right balance of P and A is crucial for this predominantly Productive function. Similarly, training scenarios and simulations of possible disasters (E) are important for emergency preparedness, but these scenarios should not

be misrecognized as exhaustive of the true range of possible situations that first responders may be faced with (P). It must always be remembered that truth is stranger than fiction, and that P-style on-the-ground, results-driven flexibility matters more than prior rehearsal. Finally, I-style concerns

regarding the cohesiveness between different response services are important, as is the degree of Integration within the community being helped. Ideally, there will have been a long-term investment in I, since well integrated communities pull together in a crisis. If this was not done, the lack of I in a region will bedevil efforts to aid victims no matter how severe their privation.

In real situations, the right schedule of PAEI priorities can be very difficult to determine, and given the inevitable biases of individuals, assessing PAEI needs is fundamentally a team activity. It takes a minimum of two people with complementary PAEI strengths who also share mutual respect for each others’ relative strengths, to assess and make decisions that cover all PAEI priorities adequately. Their conflicting perspectives are what generate the information needed to make quality decisions. In order for that conflict to be productive, however, mutual respect must be preserved. Disrespect for any of the four concerns will lead to predictable patterns of failure or suboptimal performance, along with the ironic traps attendant to the various styles of individual or group mismanagement.

Adizes Organizational Lifecycles

The brief and incomplete survey of Adizes management and mismanagement styles above shows how the Adizes concern structure is manifested at the psychological level. Prior to that, we saw how the concern structure defined four functional imperatives of achieving long and short term effectiveness and efficiency. A third zone of application of concern structure thinking in the Adizes Methodology arises in the context of its theory of organizational lifecycle dynamics. (For another personality-typed organizational lifecycle model, see Bridges (2000)).

Like other lifecycle models, the Adizes organizational lifecycle describes several phases in the life of any project, from inception and growth through to maturation and decline. However, the Adizes lifecycle describes this maturational arc in PAEI (concern structure) terms. The lifecycle is

described in ten phases: Courtship, Infancy, Go-Go, Adolescence, Prime, Stable, Aristocracy, Early Bureaucracy, Late Bureaucracy and Death. Each phase has its unique PAEI needs, and specific consequences for PAEI mismatches. The phases and their concern structure requirements are
described below.

Courtship [paEi]

The phase of Courtship involves the potential founder of a new project or organization talking to others about the opportunity, building enthusiasm and support for the new idea. This lifecycle phase is dominated by the Entrepreneuring function. Dreams and ideas for new projects or enterprises

are exciting! The enthusiasm of the originator of the idea can be profoundly contagious, pulling other people into the excitement. This excitement is what fuels the creation of the founding team and the willingness of supporters to consider investment. A grand vision is being proposed. The potential new
founder is often very charismatic at this stage in the organizational lifecycle, impassioned and full of big dreams, though sketchy on details. The excitement must thus be directed towards motivating people to reality-test the new Entrepreneurial concept.

The concept must be tested. Some details need to be filled out. Although this is an E-dominant lifecycle stage, P and A cannot be absent. The realism of the dream must be assessed, but not too harshly. We must not dampen the growing excitement of the founding team too much. That
excitement must be harnessed to build commitment among people who join the enterprise, proportionate to the risks of the venture. If commitment does not develop, then the Courtship burns out as an Arson-like Affair, a product of E-style activity only, generating a lot of flash and noise but producing no lasting value.

Infancy [Paei]

Most new ventures die in Courtship. However, if the results of reality-testing are positive, and if the founders and their supporters make commitments of time, energy and resources to the project, it moves into the extraordinarily busy Infancy stage. Long-term visions take a back seat to securing the resources (cash) simply to stay afloat from moment to moment. The pressure for survival forces us to “make things up as we go along”. Few systems can be established, because of the opportunistic nature of all activities.

This is normal and not life-threatening. At this rate of change it would be a mistake to try to regularize behavior too much. It is also normal for delegation to be poor and uneven at this stage. Founders end up doing almost everything themselves, or they delegate in a haphazard, slightly Lone Ranger manner. A, E and I are not absent in Infancy, however. Longer-term strategies are needed, along with simple systems and support for team members, who will be facing extreme demands. If support dwindles, and if resource commitments to the Infant organization are too meager, it will suffer Infant Mortality, crumbling as an impossibly challenging enterprise with too little support.

Go-Go [PaEi]

After a cycle of E generating exciting new ideas and P making things happen out of raw materials and grit, the two energies come together to build on their successes. Following some hard effort, the organization will gain scope and some security of income (if the founding vision was clear in the

first place). The organization will be paying for itself, no longer requiring protection or support from the outside. The founders will be able to lean back and see the organization moving on its own steam, while at the same time opportunities for more work appear everywhere. The Go-Go organization is like a toddler, growing quickly, touching everything they come across, and

gaining new experience and capability all the time. Founders can come to have too many priorities, making it impossible for them to continue to lead the organization as individuals.
A challenging transition is required. Founders have to offload some decision-making control, delegating it to other members of the organization. Entrepreneurship has to be decentralized too, so that people can pursue initiatives of various kinds without consulting the founder for each and every

project. If over-centralized control is maintained (both P and E are focal or centralizing styles) then the organization will never grow any larger than that size which the founder can personally manage as a single individual. There will be a Lone Ranger-like bottleneck at the top of the organization, called the Founder’s Trap. In order to grow past this point, the organization has to grow bigger than the founding group can directly control. They have to reorganize themselves, and they have to learn how to work with others.

Adolescence [pAEi]

Adolescence is a rebirth and emergence into the phase of maturity. It requires the organization to take an inward turn, to analyze, organize and rationalize their own organizational structure. The previously sales-driven Infant-Go-Go culture (PE) must now focus on streamlining procedures,

trimming waste and boosting profits (A), even if that means that sales numbers go down. Furthermore, the ad hoc, relationship-based reporting lines and job descriptions need to be dissolved and replaced by a more principled organizational structure. Professional managers with business

school backgrounds may be hired to do this, but they will immediately be at odds with the founding group. The newcomers will treat the job as a job, and they will not understand all of the relationships and customs that were built up among the old-timers. There will be some pressure to oust these technocratic-seeming newcomers. Or alternatively, there may be pressure
applied by the new professional managers to oust the founders for their ad hoc, unschooled, intuitive manner of running a large company.

If these forces are not harmonized, a Divorce between the two factions may ensue. The old-timers (PE) may expel the newcomers (A), leading to an organization that almost but never quite reaches its full potential as a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. This kind of Divorce is named the Unfulfilled Entrepreneur, describing the inability of the founders to realize the full potential of their organization.

Alternatively, the newcomers (A) may take over and oust the founders, losing all of the energy, vision and insight (E) that the founding group has developed in creating the company from scratch. The remaining administratively-oriented technocratic managers will then rationalize the company, improve profits briefly, and then run out of ideas. The E that guides the company will be gone. This kind of Divorce is called Premature Aging. The ousting of E by A leads to an ossified organization that can no longer grow or adapt to changes in the marketplace.

Prime [PAEI]

Prime is the target state for any organization. Prime organizations have the flexibility to adapt to change and the control to produce predictable results. Prime results when the conflicts of adolescence are resolved, and Integration is achieved between A and E, creating a flexible structure. This flexible structure allows the organization to turn its attention outwards again,
producing results for clients with all of the vision and aggressiveness of a Go-Go organization, but in a much more predictable fashion. The organization can do more, and do better as well, continuing to enjoy efficiency gains from process improvements.

Tension between E and A – the forces for change and for stability – are always at odds, however, and the impulse to ignore directions or details and simply produce results is at odds with both. The Prime organization is thus always oscillating between the launch of new projects and new ventures,

and the day to day management of less volatile, older projects. If the organization grows complacent, it may delay or stop launching new projects, and just ride out the momentum of previous accomplishments. This manifests itself first as a lack of E. Losing E means the loss of the organization’s capacity for innovation. The company may still grow, but at a slower and slower rate. The complacent organization will eventually suffer a major reversal of fortune.

Stable [PA-I]

A stable organization is an organization in trouble. By all metrics the organization is still doing well, and there is a solid history of success behind it. The mood within the organization is self-congratulatory. The founders and other key managers may feel that they have finally “arrived”. They may feel that they have discovered the formulas for lasting success, and they may begin simply applying those formulas instead of attending to changing client needs. People feel secure in the dominant position of their organization. A sense of entitlement can come to characterize their attitude towards success, and they stop listening to others outside the organization, slowly losing touch with new changing developments. These organizations are often large, and they become slow in responding to change. They have crossed a crucial line between maturing and aging. They are starting to die.

Aristocracy [-A-I]

If Stable organizations persist in their withdrawal from contact with the outside world, they degenerate further into Aristocracies. Cash piles up in Aristocratic organizations, which unlike Prime organizations have no new ventures lined up and waiting for investment. Aristocracies may buy other

organizations, often Go-Go companies, to try to inject the missing energy and vitality back into the group. However, the heavy top-down administration of Aristocratic organizations often smothers the energetic Go-Gos. Aristocracies are often takeover targets themselves, due again to their tendency to pile up cash. When they are taken into other organizations, their ineffectiveness and remoteness from their client base may become painfully obvious.

Aristocracies also invest in sumptuous headquarters and executive perquisites. The organization begins to feel like an exclusive country club. Membership and codes of conduct for members preoccupy the leadership, and even though many people are aware that effectiveness has been lost,
nobody breaks ranks to express the bad news. Those last few who might are marginalized and finally excluded. Form rules over function.

Early Bureaucracy [-A—]

The eighth stage of the Adizes organizational lifecycle has been repeatedly renamed over the years. It has been called “Salem City”, because when the loss of effectiveness in the organization can no longer be hidden, and the momentum of past successes runs out, the united front of Aristocratic
denial ruptures, and the hunt for scapegoats begins. Everybody begins to blame everyone else. Usually, the last few productive leaders are the first to be purged. Occasional purges continue, and this activity continues to divert attention from the actual marketplace and the client needs the organization serves. Customers continue to be treated like inconvenient annoyances that distract people from the “really” important work of internal politics.

Late Bureaucracy [-A—]

In the aftermath of the witch hunts, form is all that remains. If a functioning organization based on client needs was not reestablished in the reorganization of the early bureaucracy, all that gets left behind is a network of rules, regulations and practices masquerading as an organization. This
explicit control and order is seen as an antidote to the chaos of Early Bureaucracy. The cohesive culture of the Aristocracy is swept away, leaving a set of rules and strictures in its place. Top managers, middle managers and workers may all come and go without much effect. The organization has its own inertia and cannot be redirected or budged from where it is.

Bureaucracies grow. The effort to eliminate all gray areas and uncertainty leads to an increasingly minute specification of work roles and responsibilities, further and further removed from any real service that could be delivered to an external client. The organization has long since ceased to
produce any kind of value proportionate to its vast and cumbersome size, and it is almost entirely insulated from change.
Only some kind of external subsidy keeps Bureaucracies afloat. If they were dependent on client billing of any kind to generate income, they would immediately have to reduce their size and reinvent themselves as a client-centered, productive and competitive organization. Otherwise, once
their subsidy is removed, they decline towards Death.

Death [——]

Organizational Death is rarely an event. It is usually a drawn-out process of the slow withdrawal of subsidies, reductions in size of the organization and final client abandonment of the system. Finally, no one is committed to the organization any longer; not its management, not its workers, not its clients and not its political supporters. Death is characterized by expressions of learned helplessness, and it is prolonged by an unwillingness to eliminate jobs. Maintaining a dead organization on the artificial life support system of subsidies is extremely expensive and usually
occurs for purely political reasons.



Miller, Marlane - Brain Styles 


The Structure of Concern Project compares many theoretical models from many disciplines to the Adizes PAEI model, arguing that they must all be reflecting the same underlying phenomenon. One concern structure model is described below.

Marlane Miller is president of the BrainStyles consulting firm, and author of Brainstyles: Be Who You Really Are (with David Cherry, creator of the BrainStyles System), Brainstyles for Lovers: Create Partnerships That Change Your Life Without Changing Who You Are, and Brainstyles: Change Your Life Without Changing Who You Are (Cherry & Miller, 1992; Miller, 2004; 1997). 

The BrainStyles System emphasizes that certain strengths and problem-solving preferences within us will always remain strong points for us. The same applies to our various non-strengths. Becoming aware of our styles allows us to play to our strengths, rather than losing time in unproductive efforts in areas of non-strength. This awareness also lets us work to the strengths of people around us, building better and more successful teams.

Our dominant styles are often invisible to us. We focus on the more effortful aspects of our working experience, rather than things we do well effortlessly. However, when unique events occur that require unique responses rather than old solutions, our hard-wired problem-solving styles are most often activated. Again, knowing the styles of different team members can help settle who should lead solution efforts for different kinds of these "time-zero events".

The four BrainStyles are listed below in PAEI order.

P – Deliberators: Balanced, rational and practical, willing to win points using intimidation. Tend to be uninterested or unaware of emotional issues surrounding decisions. Deliberators stick closely to known solutions, favoring clear logic, conventional reasoning and established facts. They enjoy being challenged, and prefer to discover that they are wrong rather than being told so. They are steady producers who tolerate routine well.

A – Knowers: Logical, analytical, orderly. Can delay or drag out decision making by over-examining each option, or come to very fast decisions based on knowledge or mastery of systems. These fast knowledge-based decisions can seem cold and unemotional, since they exclude the human element and prioritize rules above the particulars of any one case. Knowers thrive on research and planning, and they dislike messy executions, successful or not.

E – Conceptors: Insightful, original, using both structured thinking and emotion. Conceptors favor unconventional thinking and try to persuade others to do the same. They thrive on chaos, tolerate risk well, and change their interests often. Their contributions are not always understood by other styles, but teams often adjust their direction anyways after conceptors speak. Conceptors often feel isolated and misunderstood, and they need recognition. They can become very frustrated when they are unable to communicate their ideas in a way that motivates their co-workers to follow them.

I – Conciliators: Socially skillful and empathetic networkers. Conciliators love encountering new people, new situations, and new challenges. They seek harmony and mutually successful outcomes. They prefer make commitments with care, and if they are hurried then they will often go along with it only to experience serious misgivings, anguish and regret later. Conciliators tend to focus their interest, creativity and inventiveness on the here-and-now. They require approval, social support and shared victories to remain highly motivated. Attending to their interpersonal needs can be energy-consuming.

Most people can identify their dominant style fairly easily. Mature individuals may recognize a base of two of three styles. Typically, one style will be weak, and that will be the style that requires the most effort to understand, appreciate and deal with. That is the area where it most helps to learn tolerance and respect for the different strengths of other BrainStyles.

1. Cherry, D., & Miller, M. (1992). Brainstyles: Be Who You Really Are. Dallas, Texas USA: Brainstyles, Incorporated.
2. Miller, M. (1997). Brainstyles: Change Your Life Without Changing Who You Are. New York: Simon & Schuster.
3. Miller, M. (2004). Brainstyles for Lovers: Create Partnerships That Change Your Life Without Changing Who You Are. Dallas, Texas USA: Brown Books.


OTHMAN Abu Bakar, (dua kanan) bersama empat anaknya memegang ikan yang ditangkap oleh seorang nelayan pesisir pantai di Kuala Sungai Kerteh sepanjang 4 meter dan seberat 9 kilogram. Ikan tersebut menyerupai seekor naga walaupun berwarna putih kerana mempunyai sesunggut, kepala serta sirip berwarna merah dan kulit kasar seperti pari serta berduri di bawah badan. Foto: MASTURA MANAF (29/05/2012)


Sahabat Bersengketa Dalam Peperangan Jamal dan Siffin



{Satu Kajian yang dibuat oleh Muhammad Asrie sebagai penulis artikel ini} 

Selamat Membaca!


Telah masyhur dalam sejarah Islam bahawa selepas kewafatan baginda Rasulullah s.a.w dan selepas terbunuhnya Khalifah al-Rasyidin yang ketiga; Usman bin Affan r.h, umat Islam berada dalam keadaan perpecahan dan perbezaan pendapat yang membawa kepada pertumpahan darah.
Sering diwar-warkan di merata ceruk bahawa persengketaan yang berlaku dalam peperangan Jamal dan Siffin adalah persengketaan antara Sahabat-sahabat Rasulullah r.hum dan mereka ini berperang sesama sendiri.

Namun, berapakah jumlah Sahabat yang berperang sesama sendiri ini? Adakah semua Sahabat yang hidup ketika itu terlibat dalam persengekataan sesama sendiri ini? Syiah Rafidah mendakwa semua Sahabat menjadi kafir kecuali beberapa kerat kerana mereka semua terlibat dalam pertumpahan darah ini. Benarkah sedemikian rupa?

Jawapan yang tepat dan tidak teragak-agak adalah dakwaan dan tohmahan jijik Rafidah ini adalah dusta sama sekali kerana para Sahabat ridwanullahi ‘alaihim majoriti mereka langsung tidak terlibat dalam pertempuran sesama sendiri ini.

Imam Muhammad bin Sirin r.h, salah seorang Tabiin yang menyaksikan persengketaan ini dengan dua matanya berkata:

هاجت الفتنة، وأصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عشرة آلاف، فما حضرها منهم مائة، بل لم يبلغوا ثلاثين

Maksudnya: “Berlaku fitnah sedangkan jumlah para Sahabat Rasulullah s.a.w semuanya (yang masih hidup) ketika itu 10,000 (sepuluh ribu) orang, tidak ikut serta dalam fitnah itu daripada mereka kecuali 100 (seratus) orang bahkan mungkin tidak sampai 30 (tiga puluh) orang sekalipun”. [al-Bidayah wan Nihayah, 7/281].

Hal ini juga dapat dilihat dalam kitab-kitab sejarah Islam yang muktabar seperti al-Bidayah wan Nihayah oleh Ibn Kasir dan Tarikh al-Islam Imam al-Zahabi. Al-Imam Ibn Kasir r.h ketika menyenarikan nama-nama pembesar Sahabat yang terbunuh semasa peperangan Jamal menyebut hanya dua orang iaitu Talhah r.a dan al-Zubair r.a sedangkan kata Ibn Kasir r.h jumlah keseluruhan yang terbunuh dalam peperangan Jamal adalah 10,000 orang.

Bandingkan jumlah korban keseluruhan dengan jumlah Sahabat yang terkorban dalam peperangan Jamal ini, menunjukkan betapa sedikitnya Sahabat yang terlibat dalam peperangan ini.

Bahkan lebih menarik, Al-Zubair r.a tidaklah dibunuh di medan peperangan namun seorang Rafidah yang terlibat dalam pembunuhan Usman r.a mengekori beliau semasa beliau meninggalkan medan peperangan lalu si celaka ini membunuh beliau secara tipu muslihat ketika beliau sedang tidur reda Allah sebanyak-banyaknya atas beliau-Hawari Rasulillah s.a.w-.

Ketika berlaku peperangan Jamal ini, Saidina Al-Zubair r.a sebuah hadis Nabi s.a.w kepada beliau ketika Nabi s.a.w menemui beliau sedang duduk bersama Ali r.a lantas Nabi s.a.w bersabda: “Adakah kamu mencintainya wahai Zubair?” Jawab Zubair: “Apakah yang menghalangi aku untuk mencintainya?” Lalu Nabi s.a.w bersabda: “Maka bagaimana pula keadaan kamu nanti ketika kamu memeranginya sedangkan kamu berlaku zalim kepadanya?”

Apabila beliau teringat akan hadis ini, maka Saidina Zubair r.a segera beredar daripada pertempuran dan bersumpah tidak akan memerangi Ali r.a. [al-Bidayah wan Nihayah, 7/268-269].
Demikian juga telah tsabit semua Sahabat ridwanullahi ‘alaihim yang terlibat dalam peperangan Jamal ini menyesal dan mengaku mereka bersalah dalam tindakan mereka dan terjadi perdamaian antara mereka sebaik sahaja selesai peperangan.

Imam al-Sya’bi r.h begitu mengingkari ramainya Sahabat yang terlibat dalam peperangan Jamal sehingga beliau berkata:

لم يشهدها إلا علي، وعمار، وطلحة، والزبير من الصحابة

Maksudnya: “Tidak turut serta dalamnya (perang Jamal) melainkan Ali, Ammar, Talhah, dan al-Zubair daripada Sahabat”. [Tarikh al-Islam, 3/484]

Malah riwayat-riwayat sejarah lainnya menyatakan para Sahabat yang turut serta bersama Ali r.a dalam peperangan Jamal ini tidak lebih daripada 1000 sahabat sahaja sedangkan seperti kata Ibn Sirin r.h jumlah Sahabat yang masih hidup ketika itu adalah 10,000 orang. Bayangkan terdapat 9000 lagi sahabat ridwanullahi ‘alaihim tidak menyertai fitnah yang terjadi ini. [Ibid]

Sudahlah bilangan Sahabat yang turut serta ini sedikit, peperangan yang berlaku pula bukan berpunca daripada mereka ridwanullahi ‘alaihim sebagaimana yang ditegaskan para sejarawan Islam. Berkata Imam al-Zahabi r.h menyatakan pendapat para Ahli Sejarah:

اصطف الفريقان، وليس لطلحة ولا لعلي رأسي الفريقين قصد في القتال، بل ليتكلموا في اجتماع الكلمة، فترامى أوباش الطائفتين بالنبل، وشبت نار الحرب، وثارت النفوس

Maksudnya: “Kedua-dua pasukan berada dalam barisan dan tiada niat dalam diri Talhan dan Ali, ketua kedua-dua pasukan untuk berperang bahkan untuk berbincang untuk menyatukan suara lalu sekelompok orang daripada kedua-dua pihak mula melontarkan lembing maka menyala lah api peperangan dan berkobarlah jiwa…”.[Tarikh al-Islam, 3/486].

Jelas kalimah أوباش  menunjukkan yang memulakan peperangan adalah kaum yang tidak diketahui dan bukanlah daripada kalangan Sahabat sendiri bahkan mereka itu sangat berusaha untuk menyatukan kaum muslimin, bahkan Aisyah r.ha Ummul Mukmini sendiri ketika memujuk Kaab bin Sur keluar bersamanya ke Jamal berkata: “Sesungguhnya tujuanku hanyalah untuk memperbaiki antara manusia”.[Ibid]
Bahkan Kaab bin Sur al-Azdi r.h (Abu Nuaim r.h memasukkan beliau dalam kalangan Sahabat) keluar sebagai pemegang tali unta Ummul Mukminin membawa Mushaf dan perisai sahaja dan sepanjang peperangan beliau mengajak manusia supaya berdamai namun dia terbunuh terkena panah sesat (dan kita tidak meragui kemungkinan besar kaum Sabaiah –Rafidah- yang memanah beliau kerana tidak mahu peperangan dihentikan).

Demikian juga Muslim al-Juhani r.h daripada pihak Ali r.a diarahkan oleh Ali r.a untuk mengarak Mushaf dan menyeru supaya mereka berhenti berperang dan kembali kepada hukum al-Quran namun dia juga dibunuh bahkan dikatakan orang pertama yang terbunuh.[ibid, m.s 490].
Lihat, para Sahabat dalam peperangan Jamal ini sentiasa berusaha untuk menghentikan peperangan yang bukan mereka mulakan. Maka Laknat Allah atas tangan-tangan tersembunyi di sebalik kejadian ini yang tidak lain tidak bukan pengikut Abdullah bin Saba’, pengasas ajaran Syiah.
Berpindah pula kepada fitnah yang kedua iaitu peristiwa Siffin yang berlaku antara Saidina Ali r.a dan Saidina Muawiyah r.a.

Berkata al-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal r.h: Menceritakan kepada kami Umayyah bin Khalid, dikatakan kepada Syu’bah: Ibn Abi Syaibah telah meriwayatkan daripada al-Hakam daripada Abdul Rahman bin Abi Laila berkata: “Turut serta dalam peperangan Siffin daripada Ahli Badar 70 (tujuh puluh) orang”. Berkata Syu’bah: “Abu Syaibah salah, kami telah berdiskusi dengan al-Hakam berkenaan perkara ini dan kami tidak dapati Ahli Badar yang menyertai Siffin kecuali Khuzaimah bin Tsabit[1]”. Dikatakan juga turut serta dalam Siffin daripada Ahli Badar, Sahl bin Hunaif r.a dan Abu Ayyub al-Ansari r.a. [al-Bidayah wan Nihayah, 7/281].
Al-Zahabi r.h menukil daripada Khalifah bahawa Sahabat Ahli Badar yang menyertai Siffin bersama Ali r.a adalah: ‘Ammar bin Yasir, Khawat bin Jabir, Sahl bin Hunaif, Abu Saad al-Sa’idi, Abul Yusr, Abu Rifa’ah al-Ansari dan Abu Ayyub al-Ansari.

Sahabat yang bukan Ahli Badar pula adalah: Khuzaimah bin Tsabit[2], Qais bin Saad bin Ubadah, Abu Qatadah, Sahl bin Saad al-Sa’idi, Qurzah bin Kaab, Jabir bin Abdullah, Ibn Abbas, al-Hasan, al-Husein, Abdullah bin Jaafar bin Abi Talib, Uqbah bin ‘Amir, Abu ‘Ayyash al-Razki, ‘Adi bin Hatim, al-Asy’as bin Qais, Sulaiman bin Surad, Jundub bin Abdullah, dan Jariah bin Qudamah”.
Lihat jumlah Sahabat yang menyertai peperangan Siffin ini boleh dibilang dengan jari sahaja wahai kaum Muslimin sekalian, masih terdapat beribu-ribu Sahabat lain lagi yang tidak turut serta dalam peperangan ini.

Adapun riwayat daripada Abdul Rahman bin Abza r.a:

شهدنا مع علي ثمانمائة ممن بايع بيعة الرضوان، قتل منهم ثلاثة وستون رجلاً، منهم عمار

Maksudnya: “Kami menyertai Ali bersama 800 orang yang berbaiat dalam Baiat al-Ridwan, terbunuh antara mereka 360 lelaki antaranya Ammar”. [Tarikh al-Islam, 3/545].

Riwayat ini munkar kerana perawinya: Yazid bin Abdul Rahman adalah Abu Khalid al-Dalani kerana dia sahaja bernama Yazid bin Abdul Rahman yang mempunyai riwayat yang diriwayatkan oleh Abdul Salam bin Harb.
 Yazid ini dihukum Layyin oleh Ibn Adi dalam al-Kamil fid Dhu’afa’ dan cukuplah menjelaskan kedaifannya dengan disenaraikan dalam al-Kamil, kitab yang khusus menceritakan perawi yang daif sahaja dan Syuraik berkata: “Dia seorang Murjiah, kami berlindung dengan Allah daripadanya”. [Lihat al-Kamil, 7/277-278 dan al-Tarikh al-Kabir , al-Bukhari, 8/346-347].

Maka jelas kepada kita jumlah Sahabat yang terlibat dalam peperangan Siffin tidak sampai beberapa kerat sahaja, maka di manakah kesahihan tohmahan Rafidah bahawa ‘SEMUA SAHABAT KECUALI BEBERAPA KERAT’ kafir mereka kerana berperang sesama sendiri??

Kemudian, adakah mereka yang terlibat dalam peperangan Kafir? Demi Allah, sama sekali tidak kerana Nabi s.a.w telah menamakan mereka sebagai MUSLIMIN sebagaimana dalam sabda baginda:

إنَّ ابني هذا سَيِّدٌ ، ولعَلَّ اللهَ أَنْ يُصلِحَ به بَيْنَ فِئتَينِ عَظِيمَتَينِ من المسلمين

Maksudnya: “Sesungguhnya anak ku ini (yakni al-Hasan bin Ali r.hma) adalah Sayyid (penghulu), mudah-mudahan Allah akan membaikkan dengannya dua puak yang besar daripada Muslimin”. [al-Bukhari].

Hadis ini mengisyaratkan islah yang dilakukan oleh Saidina al-Hasan r.a dengan menyerahkan jawatan Khalifah kepada Saidina Muawiyah r.a yang dengan itu kaum muslimin berkumpul semula di bawah satu Khilafah dan dinamakan tahun itu sebagai ‘Tahun Jamaah’.

Jelas dan terang lagi bersuluh Nabi s.a.w menamakan kedua-dua kumpulan yang menyokong Ali r.a dan Muawiyah r.a sebagai MUSLIMIN, maka siapakah Rafidah sehingga berani-berani sahaja mengkafirkan para Sahabat Nabi s.a.w. Sungguh rahmat dan reda Allah tidak putus-putus mencurah ke atas para Sahabat Rasulullah s.a.w dan tidak putus-putus pula laknatNya atas kaum Rafidah yang zalim dan fasiq ini.

[1] Kedudukan Khuzaimah bin Tsabit r.a sebagai Ahli Badar terdapat pertikaian.
[2] Atas pendapat beliau bukan Badri

Dunia RICHWORK adalah Dunia Pemasaran

Richworks tumpu operasi 4 negara

SELEPAS tiga tahun membawa ramai usahawan tempatan mengorak kejayaan dalam perniagaan, syarikat motivasi Richworks Human Capital Development (M) Sdn Bhd, bakal mengembangkan sayapnya ke luar negara.

Pengasas Kumpulan Richworks, Dr Azizan Osman, berkata syarikatnya akan mengembangkan sayap perniagaannya di empat negara iaitu Indonesia, Filipina, India dan Australia selepas Aidilfitri nanti.
Katanya, beliau menyasar pembabitan tiga kali ganda daripada peserta yang datang ke Seminar Marketing Power yang dianjurkan di negara ini.
“Sebenarnya masalah pemasaran ini berlaku di mana-mana saja. Di negara maju juga mengalami masalah sama.

“Saya ke Amerika Syarikat tahun lalu, dan saya menyedari masalah ini juga berlaku di sana.

“Usahawan berjaya, pandai dalam pemasaran manakala yang tidak berjaya, dia tidak pandai dalam pemasaran. Ini bukan masalah di Malaysia saja,” katanya selepas Seminar Marketing Power yang diadakan di Hotel Bluewave di Shah Alam, semalam.

Azizan berkata, berikutan beliau akan mengembangkan perniagaannya ke luar negara, siri jelajah seminar itu adalah terakhir yang akan dilakukannya sendiri sebagai penceramah.
Katanya, ia kerana beliau jarang berada dalam negara untuk mengendalikan sendiri seminar berkenaan.

Bagaimanapun, katanya, beliau merancang mengadakan seminar usahawan di negara ini setahun sekali selepas ini.

“Ia antara faktor mengapa kami menganjurkan seminar percuma ini sejak Januari lalu kerana u ia akan menjadi sesi terakhir.

“Kalau adapun, pasukan saya yang akan mengendalikan seminar berkenaan,” katanya.

Mengenai siri seminar yang sudah tiga tahun dijalankan itu, Azizan berkata lebih 35,000 usahawan terbabit dengan seminar berkenaan sejak ia mula diperkenalkan.

Sementara itu, katanya, lebih 18,000 usahawan yang sudah berjaya membawa perniagaan mereka ke peringkat yang lebih tinggi termasuk memperoleh pendapatan yang mencecah ratusan juta ringgit.

Azizan berkata, masalah kebanyakan usahawan ialah ramai yang tidak tahu cara memasarkan produk walaupun mempunyai produk yang bagus.

Selain itu, katanya, konsep pemasaran gerila yang diperkenalkannya membantu mengajar usahawan untuk memasarkan produk masing-masing dengan kos yang rendah atau tanpa membabitkan kos



Wanita Malaysia dipercayai jual ovum

SPERMA boleh mencecah harga RM900 sebotol kecil manakala ovum kadangkala berharga RM100,000.

KUALA LUMPUR - Fenomena jual beli ovum dan sperma untuk mendapatkan anak dipercayai turut dilakukan rakyat negara ini.
Bekas Presiden Persatuan Perubatan Islam Malaysia (PPIM), Prof. Dr. Abdul Latiff Mohamed berkata, beliau tidak menolak kemungkinan ada klinik kesuburan dan hospital swasta di negara ini yang menjalankan perniagaan itu untuk meraih keuntungan. 

"Harga sebotol kecil air mani lelaki di pasaran antarabangsa boleh mencecah antara RM650 hingga RM900 sebotol, bergantung kepada etnik, bentuk fizikal, latar belakang pendidikan dan kesihatan penderma. Ovum wanita pula pernah dijual sehingga RM100,000," katanya.

Beliau diminta mengulas isu urus niaga sperma dan ovum di dunia yang dilaporkan mencecah nilai berbilion ringgit setahun. Denmark, misalnya, merupakan pembekal sperma terbesar dunia dengan mengeksportnya ke beberapa negara seperti Kanada, Kenya, Paraguay dan Hong Kong.

Sperma dan ovum mendapat permintaan tinggi daripada pasangan gay dan lesbian, wanita yang enggan berkahwin, serta wanita yang sudah menopaus tetapi mahukan anak.

Pelajar universiti jual benih

IDEA bank sperma pernah menimbulkan polemik di Malaysia pada lebih lima tahun lalu sedangkan bank seperti itu telah lama beroperasi di Amerika Syarikat (AS) dan Eropah.

Bank itu popular dalam kalangan wanita bujang atau pasangan yang gagal mendapatkan zuriat sendiri.

Mereka boleh membeli sperma seperti membeli baju dengan memilih jenis air mani berasaskan etnik, bentuk fizikal, latar belakang pendidikan dan kesihatan penderma.

Hakikatnya isu itu belum ada kesudahannya. Tiada undang-undang yang digubal khusus untuk menangani masalah itu.
Bukan setakat menjual sperma, ovum wanita juga popular di seluruh dunia. Ia melibatkan urus niaga yang mencecah berbilion dolar setahun.

Baka manusia itu boleh dibeli dengan mudah sehingga mencecah harga RM100,000 sebotol, bergantung pada siapa si pendermanya.
Golongan penderma wanita yang menjadi sasaran firma kesuburan pula ialah pelajar universiti khususnya wanita berketurunan Asia. 

Puncanya, golongan itu mudah dipujuk atas desakan wang, kos pengajian yang tinggi di samping keinginan untuk hidup mewah.

Seorang wanita yang mengaku menjual ovumnya, Kline, berkata jual beli itu ibarat satu pelaburan yang menguntungkan.

Dia yang berketurunan Cina-Vietnam mendakwa telah tiga kali terlibat dalam proses itu dengan memberikan ovumnya kepada sebuah agensi pembekal ovum di California, AS.

Kline memperoleh bayaran hampir RM100,000 untuk semua urus niaga itu.
"Mereka mengatakan banyak keluarga yang sukakan ovum wanita Asia," kata pelajar sebuah kolej di AS yang berumur 26 tahun ini.

Natasha, seorang imigran Rusia yang bekerja di sebuah klinik di Cyprus juga terlibat dengan kegiatan menjual ovum.

Katanya, dia berhijrah ke Cyprus setelah berkenalan dengan teman lelakinya melalui internet.

Malangnya, pengorbanannya itu tidak berbalas. Mereka akhirnya berpisah. Natasha hidup seperti pelarian di Cyprus. Dia tiada visa dan tempat tinggal, malah tiada pekerjaan. 

"Mujur saya cantik dan sihat menyebabkan ovum saya bernilai," katanya yang meraih kira-kira RM50,000 untuk urus niaga itu.

Carmen Pislaru, seorang wanita dari Romania yang bekerja di Cyprus pula mendakwa kesempitan hidup selepas melahirkan anak keempat sebagai punca dia terjebak.

"Doktor bertanya adakah saya ingin menjual ovum. Dia seakan-akan mengetahui saya tertekan gara-gara tidak mampu membayar kos perubatan.

"Seminggu selepas memikirkannya, saya menerima tawaran itu dengan bayaran RM8,000," ceritanya yang tidak menyesali tindakannya itu.
Satu kes unik di Sepanyol pula melibatkan seorang imigran dari Chile, Nicole Rodriguez yang menyambung pengajian di negara itu.
AKTIVITI menjual sperma dan ovum menggalakkan pertambahan golongan gay dan lesbian.

"Saya baru memasuki sebuah kolej di Sepanyol. Peraturan di negara itu tidak membenarkan saya bekerja sambilan, jadi menjual ovum ialah cara mudah untuk mendapatkan wang," tutur Rodriguez.

Ceritanya, musim sejuk membantunya kerana kulitnya yang berwarna hitam menjadi agak putih.

"Selepas menjalani proses yang memenatkan itu, di tepi bantal saya terdapat sampul surat yang agak tebal berisi wang.

"Saya seperti seorang pelacur yang mendapatkan ganjaran dengan menjual tubuh," katanya.
Bayaran RM6,000 itu lebih daripada mencukupi untuk Rodriguez menanggung kos sara hidup selama tiga bulan di Sepanyol.
Derma ovum
Sejak berdekad lamanya permintaan global terhadap ovum manusia berkembang pesat sehingga tidak mampu dikawal lagi dengan lebih 250,000 bayi telah dilahirkan melalui cara itu. 

Keinginan wanita bujang, wanita tua yang sudah menopaus dan pasangan suami isteri yang tidak mempunyai anak merancakkan lagi perniagaan pelik ini.

Wanita dari negara miskin juga akan menjual telur mereka kepada doktor tempatan yang kemudian menjualnya dengan harga yang mahal kepada keluarga kaya di Barat.

Cyprus yang merupakan negara Kesatuan Eropah membenarkan aktiviti itu dengan alasan ia lebih berbentuk derma yang akan diberi pampasan berupa wang.

Perkara itu dinyatakan sendiri oleh Menteri Kesihatan negara itu, Carolina Stylianou.

Kerajaan Cyprus menganggarkan nisbah 1:50 wanita di negara kepulauan itu yang berumur 18 hingga 30 tahun terlibat dengan aktiviti menjual ovum.
Seorang pakar biologi dari Universiti Northwestern, Chicago, AS, Laurie Zoloth berpendapat, fenomena menjual ovum adalah sisi buruk sistem kapitalis yang sanggup memperdagangkan apa sahaja yang bersumber daripada manusia.

Seorang peguam, Andrew Vorzimer menyifatkan urus niaga itu menunjukkan 'kejahatan budaya Barat'.

"Saya pernah melihat kontrak penderma ovum yang memperoleh bayaran sebanyak RM600,000," katanya.

Sebuah firma kesuburan di Britain baru-baru ini mencetuskan kontroversi kerana menawarkan bayaran RM3,000 kepada pelajar Universiti Cambridge yang sanggup menderma ovum mereka.

Secara umum, penderma perlu mengambil dadah untuk merangsang pengeluaran telur. Sasaran mereka ialah pelajar berumur 18 hingga 35 tahun selain memiliki sifat baik hati, jujur dan sihat tubuh.

Pengarah Perubatan Klinik Kesuburan Create London, Geeta Nargund, berkata idea itu mengundang risiko yang tinggi.

Bagi Josephine Quintavalle daripada kumpulan kempen Comment on Reproductive Ethics, retorik menderma ovum untuk mendapatkan pampasan merupakan helah pihak tertentu bagi menjana keuntungan mudah.

"Pelajar universiti sering menjadi sasaran kerana mereka lebih bijak. Malangnya, tiada kajian lanjut dilakukan berkaitan risiko individu yang mengambil dadah untuk proses itu serta kesan terhadap anak yang dilahirkan," ujarnya.

Soal etika

TERDAPAT segelintir pelajar kolej di Barat yang menjual ovum disebabkan desakan wang. - Gambar hiasan

Pengarah Komunikasi Gabungan Persatuan Pengguna-Pengguna Malaysia (FOMCA), Mohd. Yusof Abdul Rahman memberitahu, dahulu negara ini pernah dikejutkan dengan polemik pengenalan bank sperma.

"Mungkin ada syarikat tertentu dan hospital swasta yang menawarkan perkhidmatan sebegini termasuk menjual ovum wanita dan sperma lelaki.
"Saya yakin ia berlaku di negara ini walaupun saya tidak pernah menerima sebarang aduan," katanya.

Ujarnya, ini mungkin disebabkan tiada pasangan atau individu yang mahu melaporkan perkara itu kerana malu.

"Masyarakat negara kita terkenal dengan adat ketimuran. Ia kes terpencil selain mereka mendapatkan rawatan itu di luar negara.

"Bagi mereka yang beragama Islam, perkara ini dilarang sama sekali dalam agama," katanya.

Menurut bekas Presiden Persatuan Perubatan Islam Malaysia (PPIM), Prof. Dr. Abdul Latiff Mohamed, jualan sperma dan ovum hanya menggalakkan pasangan gay dan lesbian untuk memperoleh anak.

"Ini boleh menimbulkan masalah sosial yang serius apabila ramai lelaki dan wanita menganggap institusi perkahwinan tidak lagi penting," ujarnya.
Tutur Abdul Latiff, membeli ovum yang dijual tidak menjamin pembelinya mendapat anak yang bijak dan sihat.

"Walaupun baka terdiri daripada individu terpelajar, faktor persekitaran dan pembelajaranlah yang akhirnya merangsang perkembangan pemikiran anak.

"Malah, individu yang menderma juga tidak dikenali. Sekiranya berlaku ketirisan atau kecuaian, anak yang lahir mungkin mengalami penyakit yang serius," katanya.